Understanding NAAC Accreditation and NAAC Grading System

Understanding NAAC Accreditation and NAAC Grading System

Grading System

The grading system used by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) is crucial for higher education institutions in India. This system evaluates and accredits universities and colleges, ensuring they meet the standards for quality education. NAAC accreditation is a benchmark of excellence in the educational landscape, guiding institutions towards continuous improvement.

The NAAC grading system uses a Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) to assess the quality of higher education institutions. Based on the CGPA, institutions receive a letter grade that reflects their accreditation status. The CGPA and letter grade are derived from an extensive assessment process that includes both qualitative and quantitative metrics.

NAAC Accreditation

NAAC accreditation is a voluntary process that higher education institutions (HEIs) undergo to validate their educational standards. The NAAC accreditation process involves a comprehensive evaluation based on predefined criteria. These criteria cover various aspects of institutional functioning, including teaching-learning processes, research, infrastructure, student support, and governance.

Accredited by NAAC, educational institutions demonstrate their commitment to providing quality education. The accreditation status not only enhances the institution’s reputation but also ensures better learning outcomes and student progress.

Assessment and Accreditation

The assessment and accreditation (A&A) process by NAAC involves several steps. Institutions must submit a Self-Study Report (SSR), detailing their performance against the NAAC’s seven criteria. These criteria include:

  1. Curricular Aspects
  2. Teaching-Learning and Evaluation
  3. Research, Innovations, and Extension
  4. Infrastructure and Learning Resources
  5. Student Support and Progression
  6. Governance, Leadership, and Management
  7. Institutional Values and Best Practices

Each criterion carries specific weightage in the overall evaluation. The assessment process involves peer team members visiting the institution, reviewing the SSR, and preparing a Peer Team Report (PTR). The NAAC Executive Committee then finalizes the accreditation status based on the CGPA and letter grade.


The NAAC assessment criteria are designed to ensure that higher education institutions provide holistic and quality education. These criteria are meticulously defined to cover all aspects of institutional functioning, from curriculum design to grievance redressal mechanisms. Institutions must excel in each criterion to achieve a high NAAC grade.

The total weightage assigned to each criterion varies, reflecting its importance in the overall assessment. For instance, the criterion related to teaching-learning processes carries significant weightage, emphasizing the core function of educational institutions.

Accreditation Process

The NAAC accreditation process is systematic and rigorous. Institutions start by submitting an Institutional Information for Quality Assessment (IIQA) form, followed by the SSR. The peer team visits the institution to verify the information provided in the SSR, interact with stakeholders, and assess the facilities and processes.

The peer team’s findings are compiled into a report, which is then reviewed by the NAAC’s overarching committee. Based on the CGPA derived from the assessment, institutions receive a letter grade ranging from A++ to D. The accreditation status is valid for a specific period, after which institutions must undergo re-assessment.

NAAC Grade

The NAAC grade is a reflection of an institution’s overall quality and performance. It is based on the CGPA and letter grade assigned after the assessment. The institutional CGPA is calculated by aggregating the scores from each criterion, with higher scores indicating better performance.

Institutions with a CGPA above 3.51 receive an ‘A++’ grade, the highest accreditation status. Conversely, those with a CGPA below 1.50 are not accredited. The NAAC grading system provides a clear and transparent mechanism for evaluating the quality of higher education institutions.


The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a critical component of the NAAC grading system. It quantifies an institution’s performance across various criteria, providing a comprehensive measure of quality. The CGPA is calculated using system-generated scores (SGS) for both qualitative and quantitative metrics.

Institutions strive to achieve a high CGPA to secure a favorable NAAC grade. The CGPA and letter grade are crucial for institutional growth, influencing student admissions, faculty recruitment, and funding opportunities.


Teaching-learning processes are at the heart of the NAAC accreditation process. Institutions are assessed on their pedagogical approaches, faculty qualifications, student engagement, and learning outcomes. Effective teaching-learning activities are essential for achieving high NAAC grades and ensuring quality education.

Innovative teaching methods, use of EdTech tools, and continuous faculty development are some strategies institutions can apply to enhance their teaching-learning processes. Mentoring faculties and adopting global best practices contribute to better learning outcomes and overall institutional performance.

Educational Institutions

Educational institutions seeking NAAC accreditation must demonstrate excellence in all aspects of their functioning. From governance to infrastructure, every element is scrutinized to ensure it meets the NAAC’s standards. Higher education institutions in India benefit from NAAC accreditation by gaining recognition and improving their quality of education.

Institutions must also establish an Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) to monitor and enhance their quality continuously. The IQAC plays a pivotal role in preparing for the NAAC accreditation process and implementing quality improvement measures.

Grievance Redressal

A robust grievance redressal mechanism is an essential criterion in the NAAC accreditation process. Institutions must have effective systems in place to address and resolve student and faculty grievances. This ensures a supportive and transparent environment, contributing to better institutional performance and higher NAAC grades.


The Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) is integral to the NAAC accreditation process. It oversees the preparation of the SSR, ensures compliance with the NAAC’s criteria, and implements quality enhancement initiatives. The IQAC’s role is crucial in maintaining and improving the institutional CGPA and accreditation status.

Institutional CGPA

The institutional CGPA is a composite score reflecting an institution’s overall performance. It is derived from the scores assigned to each criterion during the assessment process. The CGPA and letter grade indicate the institution’s accreditation status and its commitment to quality education.

Institutions must continuously strive to improve their CGPA by addressing weaknesses identified during the NAAC assessment. This involves adopting best practices, enhancing teaching-learning processes, and ensuring effective governance.

Peer Team Report

The Peer Team Report (PTR) is a critical document in the NAAC accreditation process. Prepared by the peer team after their visit, it provides a detailed evaluation of the institution’s performance. The PTR forms the basis for assigning the institutional CGPA and letter grade.

The peer team is expected to provide an unbiased and comprehensive assessment, highlighting strengths and areas for improvement. The PTR is reviewed by the NAAC Executive Committee, which finalizes the accreditation status.

National Education Policy

The National Education Policy (NEP) emphasizes the importance of quality education and accreditation. It aligns with the NAAC’s objectives, promoting excellence in higher education. The NEP encourages institutions to undergo NAAC accreditation to enhance their educational standards and achieve global excellence.


The NAAC grading system is a vital tool for assessing and accrediting higher education institutions in India. By understanding and excelling in the NAAC accreditation process, institutions can improve their quality of education, achieve higher CGPAs, and secure favorable accreditation statuses. This not only benefits the institutions but also enhances the overall status of higher education in India.